e-Ethics Students - Lesson 3

Lesson #3: Communication in Online Environments

About this lesson
On previous lesson we reviewed some principles about Ethics. Basically, we reviewed copyrights and plagiarism. In this lesson we will cover communication on online environments. As ethics is about making good choices, it also includes how to communicate in online environments. The content of this lesson has been obtained from the following sources:


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Communication, Cooperation and Collaboration
Misanchuk and Anderson have defined Communication, Cooperation and Collaboration as the three basic means of interaction in online environments. Communication is the basic level of discussion to provide presence in the class. It usually involves written opinions about readings, lectures, etc. It occurs asynchronously (email or course management system) or synchronously (chat rooms or phone). Cooperation is carried out through group assignment, where different members are assigned tasks to accomplish a project. Grades are usually assigned individually. Collaboration occurs when team members are working toward a goal (e.g. development of an instructional design model), and grade is assigned to the whole group.

In all of these three forms of interaction, the written communication plays an important role. Because not all members share the same schedule and availability, the asynchronous communication is vital to success on the online environments.

Netiquette: Etiquette in Online Communication
The etiquette in online communication has received the name of netiquette. According to Wikipedia, Netiquette is defined as “the convention on electronic forums … to facilitate efficient interaction”

A netiquette guideline has been developed by Delaware Technical and Community College. This public guideline identifies different rules to be used in One-on-One communication and One-to-Many Communication.


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One-on-One Communication
One-on-one communication occurs when a person is communicating with another person through email, chat, phone.

Rules defined for Mail etiquette (RFC1855 developed by Delaware Responsible Use of the Network (RUN) Working Group of the IETF)

  • Unless you have your own Internet access through an Internet provider, be sure to check with your employer about ownership of electronic mail. Laws about the ownership of electronic mail vary from place to place.
  • Unless you are using an encryption device (hardware or software), you should assume that mail on the Internet is not secure. Never put in a mail message anything you would not put on a postcard.
  • Respect the copyright on material that you reproduce. Almost every country has copyright laws.
  • If you are forwarding or re-posting a message you've received, do not change the wording. If the message was a personal message to you and you are re-posting to a group, you should ask permission first. You may shorten the message and quote only relevant parts, but be sure you give proper attribution.
  • Never send chain letters via electronic mail. Chain letters are forbidden on the Internet. Your network privileges will be revoked. Notify your local system administrator if your ever receive one.
  • A good rule of thumb: Be conservative in what you send and liberal in what you receive. You should not send heated messages (we call these "flames") even if you are provoked. On the other hand, you shouldn't be surprised if you get flamed and it's prudent not to respond to flames.
  • In general, it's a good idea to at least check all your mail subjects before responding to a message. Sometimes a person who asks you for help (or clarification) will send another message which effectively says "Never Mind". Also make sure that any message you respond to was directed to you. You might be cc:ed rather than the primary recipient.
  • Make things easy for the recipient. Many mailers strip header information which includes your return address. In order to ensure that people know who you are, be sure to include a line or two at the end of your message with contact information. You can create this file ahead of time and add it to the end of your messages. (Some mailers do this automatically.) In Internet parlance, this is known as a ".sig" or "signature" file. Your .sig file takes the place of your business card. (And you can have more than one to apply in different circumstances.)
  • Be careful when addressing mail. There are addresses which may go to a group but the address looks like it is just one person. Know to whom you are sending.
  • Watch cc's when replying. Don't continue to include people if the messages have become a 2-way conversation.
  • In general, most people who use the Internet don't have time to answer general questions about the Internet and its workings. Don't send unsolicited mail asking for information to people whose names you might have seen in RFCs or on mailing lists.
  • Remember that people with whom you communicate are located across the globe. If you send a message to which you want an immediate response, the person receiving it might be at home asleep when it arrives. Give them a chance to wake up, come to work, and login before assuming the mail didn't arrive or that they don't care.
  • Verify all addresses before initiating long or personal discourse. It's also a good practice to include the word "Long" in the subject header so the recipient knows the message will take time to read and respond to. Over 100 lines is considered "long".
  • Know whom to contact for help. Usually you will have resources close at hand. Check locally for people who can help you with software and system problems. Also, know whom to go to if you receive anything questionable or illegal. Most sites also have "Postmaster" aliased to a knowledgeable user, so you can send mail to this address to get help with mail.
  • Remember that the recipient is a human being whose culture, language, and humor have different points of reference from your own. Remember that date formats, measurements, and idioms may not travel well. Be especially careful with sarcasm.
  • Use mixed case. UPPER CASE LOOKS AS IF YOU'RE SHOUTING.
  • Use symbols for emphasis. That *is* what I meant. Use underscores for underlining. _War and Peace_ is my favorite book.
  • Use smileys to indicate tone of voice, but use them sparingly. :-) is an example of a smiley (Look sideways). Don't assume that the inclusion of a smiley will make the recipient happy with what you say or wipe out an otherwise insulting comment.
  • Wait overnight to send emotional responses to messages. If you have really strong feelings about a subject, indicate it via FLAME ON/OFF enclosures. For example: FLAME ON:
  • This type of argument is not worth the bandwidth it takes to send it. It's illogical and poorly reasoned. The rest of the world agrees with me.FLAME OFF
  • Do not include control characters or non-ASCII attachments in messages unless they are MIME attachments or unless your mailer encodes these. If you send encoded messages make sure the recipient can decode them.
  • Be brief without being overly terse. When replying to a message, include enough original material to be understood but no more. It is extremely bad form to simply reply to a message by including all the previous message: edit out all the irrelevant material.
  • Limit line length to fewer than 65 characters and end a line with a carriage return
  • .
  • Mail should have a subject heading which reflects the content of the message.
  • If you include a signature keep it short. Rule of thumb is no longer than 4 lines. Remember that many people pay for connectivity by the minute, and the longer your message is, the more they pay.
  • Just as mail (today) may not be private, mail (and news) are (today) subject to forgery and spoofing of various degrees of detectability. Apply common sense "reality checks" before assuming a message is valid.
  • If you think the importance of a message justifies it, immediately reply briefly to an e-mail message to let the sender know you got it, even if you will send a longer reply later.
  • "Reasonable" expectations for conduct via e-mail depend on your relationship to a person and the context of the communication. Norms learned in a particular e-mail environment may not apply in general to your e-mail communication with people across the Internet. Be careful with slang or local acronyms.
  • The cost of delivering an e-mail message is, on the average, paid about equally by the sender and the recipient (or their organizations). This is unlike other media such as physical mail, telephone, TV, or radio. Sending someone mail may also cost them in other specific ways like network bandwidth, disk space or CPU usage. This is a fundamental economic reason why unsolicited e-mail advertising is unwelcome (and is forbidden in many contexts).
  • Know how large a message you are sending. Including large files such as Postscript files or programs may make your message so large that it cannot be delivered or at least consumes excessive resources. A good rule of thumb would be not to send a file larger than 50 Kilobytes. Consider file transfer as an alternative, or cutting the file into smaller chunks and sending each as a separate message.
  • Don't send large amounts of unsolicited information to people.
  • If your mail system allows you to forward mail, beware the dreaded forwarding loop. Be sure you haven't set up forwarding on several hosts so that a message sent to you gets into an endless loop from one computer to the next to the next.

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One-to-Many Communication
One-to-many communication occurs when a person is communicating with many persons through email, chat, posts, or phone. The main difference with one-to-one is that more people can be offended if online communication occurs in inadequate ways.

Rules defined for mailing lists and valid for blogs (RFC1855 developed by Delaware Responsible Use of the Network (RUN) Working Group of the IETF)

  • Read both mailing lists and newsgroups for one to two months before you post anything. This helps you to get an understanding of the culture of the group.
  • Do not blame the system administrator for the behavior of the system users.
  • Consider that a large audience will see your posts. That may include your present or your next boss. Take care in what you write. Remember too, that mailing lists and Newsgroups are frequently archived, and that your words may be stored for a very long time in a place to which many people have access.
  • Assume that individuals speak for themselves, and what they say does not represent their organization (unless stated explicitly).
  • Remember that both mail and news take system resources. Pay attention to any specific rules covering their uses your organization may have.
  • Messages and articles should be brief and to the point. Don't wander off-topic, don't ramble and don't send mail or post messages solely to point out other people's errors in typing or spelling. These, more than any other behavior, mark you as an immature beginner.
  • Subject lines should follow the conventions of the group.
  • Forgeries and spoofing are not approved behavior.
  • Advertising is welcomed on some lists and Newsgroups, and abhorred on others! This is another example of knowing your audience before you post. Unsolicited advertising which is completely off-topic will most certainly guarantee that you get a lot of hate mail.
  • If you are sending a reply to a message or a posting be sure you summarize the original at the top of the message, or include just enough text of the original to give a context. This will make sure readers understand when they start to read your response. Since NetNews, especially, is proliferated by distributing the postings from one host to another, it is possible to see a response to a message before seeing the original. Giving context helps everyone. But do not include the entire original!
  • Again, be sure to have a signature which you attach to your message. This will guarantee that any peculiarities of mailers or newsreaders which strip header information will not delete the only reference in the message of how people may reach you.
  • Be careful when you reply to messages or postings. Frequently replies are sent back to the address which originated the post - which in many cases is the address of a list or group! You may accidentally send a personal response to a great many people, embarrassing all involved. It's best to type in the address instead of relying on "reply."
  • Delivery receipts, non-delivery notices, and vacation programs are neither totally standardized nor totally reliable across the range of systems connected to Internet mail. They are invasive when sent to mailing lists, and some people consider delivery receipts an invasion of privacy. In short, do not use them.
  • If you find a personal message has gone to a list or group, send an apology to the person and to the group.
  • If you should find yourself in a disagreement with one person, make your responses to each other via mail rather than continue to send messages to the list or the group. If you are debating a point on which the group might have some interest, you may summarize for them later.
  • Don't get involved in flame wars. Neither post nor respond to incendiary material.
  • Avoid sending messages or posting articles which are no more than gratuitous replies to replies.
  • Be careful with monospacing fonts and diagrams. These will display differently on different systems, and with different mailers on the same system.
  • There are Newsgroups and Mailing Lists which discuss topics of wide varieties of interests. These represent a diversity of lifestyles, religions, and cultures. Posting articles or sending messages to a group whose point of view is offensive to you simply to tell them they are offensive is not acceptable. Sexually and racially harassing messages may also have legal implications. There is software available to filter items you might find objectionable.

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Acronyms in Online Communication
Another way to communicate in online environments is through acronyms. Sandy Berger on How To Understand Acronyms provides a list of most popular acronyms. They are presented below:

    Saying goodbye and farewell
  • BBL - Be Back Later
  • BFN - Bye For Now
  • BRB - Be Right Back
  • TTFN - Ta Ta For Now
  • TTYL - Talk To You Later
    Encouragement and Congratulations
  • WTG - Way To Go
    Interjections
  • BTW - By The Way
  • FWIW - For What It's Worth
  • IAE - In Any Event
  • IMO - In My Opinion
  • IOW - In Other Words
  • JFYI - Just For Your Information
  • OTOH - On The Other Hand
  • WRT - With Respect To
    Chat Room Talk
  • PMFJI - Pardon Me For Jumping In
    Laughing
  • LOL - Laughing Out Loud
  • ROTFL - Rolling On The Floor Laughing
    Common Responses
  • HSIK - How Should I Know
  • NBD - No Big Deal
  • NOYB - None Of Your Business
  • OIC - Oh, I See
  • OTL - Out To Lunch
  • TIC - Tongue In Cheek
  • NO – No problem
  • TTFN = Ta-Ta For Now
  • IMHO = In My Humble Opinion
  • IYKWIMAITYD = If You Know What I Mean And I Think You Do
  • JK = Just Kidding

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Emoticons
Professor Scott E. Fahlman invented the happy face emoticons back in 1982. Since then, many emoticons have been created. A list of the top 100 emoticons can be found at About.com. Table 2 shows a subset of most used emoticons on online communication.

Emoticons on Online Communication
  • :-) Happy
  • :-e Disappointed
  • :-( Sad
  • :-< Mad
  • :-o Surprised
  • :-D Laughing
  • :-@ Screaming
  • ;-) Winking
  • :-I Indifferent

To learn more about Emoticons, consider visit the The Unofficial Smiley Dictionary.


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